Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston (PAK 43 and Flak 37). A German 88mm artillery piece is towed by a SdKfz 6 half-track in North Africa, April, 1941. The Allies had nothing as good, despite one of them designating itself the world's greatest industrial power. Many of these improvements were incorporated into the Flak 36, which had a two-piece barrel for easier replacement of worn liners. [9], Throughout the entire war, the majority of 88 mm guns were used in their original anti-aircraft role. [22] Just as important, the success of the 8.8 cm Flaks spawned the development of dedicated 8.8 cm caliber PAKs (see discussion below) which were even more adept at anti-tank mission due to their lower silhouette design. Clever and deceptive photoshops are one of the best ways to invent a fake tank. [9] For example, in January 1943 – at a time when Germany was desperately fighting to regain the strategic initiative in the East and was also facing a heavy bombing campaign in the West – expenditures on anti-aircraft defenses were 39 million reichsmarks, whereas all the remaining weapons and munitions production amounted to 93 million (including 20 million of the navy budget and only nine million of the aircraft-related budget). A simple-to-operate "semi-automatic" loading system ejected fired shells, allowing it to be reloaded by simply inserting a new shell into a tray. Photo: Mark Pellegrini / CC BY-SA 2.5 Flak 18 88 30 German Flak 18 88 mm anti aircraft artillery Flak 8,8 cm Flak Crew Paint Victory Kill Rings Flak 18 88mm gun Flak 88 gun ready to firing against aircraft Flak 88 Regiment 24 Artemowsk Winter 1941 Two 88 … [citation needed]. Widespread production started with the Nazi rise to power in 1933, and the Flak 18 was available in small numbers when Germany intervened in the Spanish Civil War. [9], Because of problems in service, the guns were almost exclusively used in Germany where they could be properly maintained and serviced. Extra features such as KS750 motorcycle, ammunition rack, shells, and range finder included for a realistic display. The Flak 30 (Flugzeugabwehrkanone 30) and improved Flak 38 were 20 mm anti-aircraft guns used by various German forces throughout World War II.It was not only the primary German light anti-aircraft gun, but by far the most numerously produced German artillery piece throughout the war. All Rights Reserved. Used mainly on flak towers. The parts of the various versions of the guns were interchangeable, and it was not uncommon for various parts to be "mixed and matched" on a particular example. Air defense units were usually deployed with either a Kommandogerät ("command device") fire control computer or a portable Würzburg radar, which were responsible for its high level of accuracy against aircraft. For the Battle of France in 1940, the army was supported by eighty-eights deployed in twenty-four mixed flak battalions. This page details the development and operational history of the 8.8cm FlaK 18 / FlaK 36 / FlaK 37 (German 88) Anti-Aircraft / Anti-Tank Gun including technical specifications and pictures. [9] The 8.8 cm Flak was used against heavily armored tanks such as the Char B1 bis and Matilda II, whose frontal armour could not be penetrated by the standard light 3.7 cm anti-tank gun. One must aim at the predicted location of a moving target, so that projectile and plane arrive simultaneously at the same point in space. © 2020 Defense Media Network. Given appropriate ammunition it proved quite capable in both roles. Westermann, Edward B (2001). [citation needed] On July 18 and 19 1944 a Luftwaffe 8.8 cm anti-aircraft battery was re-purposed by then Major Hans von Luck to attack British tanks near Cagny taking part in Operation Goodwood. By By the end of the war the 88 mm guns had performed far more missions as an anti-tank and direct-fire Field Artillery gun than as an anti-aircraft gun. They were captured by the Japanese Imperial Army during the Sino-Japanese War. This gun served as the main armament of the Tiger I heavy tank. 'Flak-Bus' 2. Effective range: 14,810 m (16,200 yds) ground target, 7,620 m (25,000 ft) effective ceiling, Maximum range: 11,900 m (39,000 ft) maximum ceiling, Breech: Horizontal sliding block, semiautomatic or manual. It was widely used by Germany throughout World War II and is one of the most recognized German weapons of that conflict. This resulted in firing rates of 15 to 20 rounds a minute, which was better than similar weapons of the era. After the war these cannons remained in Finnish use as AA-guns until 1977 and after that as coastal guns until the early 2000s. Similarly, the 244th Field Artillery Battalion was temporarily equipped with a miscellany of captured German 88 mm guns and 105 mm and 150 mm howitzers. D97/1+ Geräteliste, Oberkommando des Heeres, Heereswaffenamt, s.45, Berlin 1.7.43, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Royal Australian Armoured Corps Memorial and Army Tank Museum, Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and Military History, Historical Military Museum of Cartagena (Spain), United States Army Air Defense Artillery Museum, National Museum of the United States Air Force, signalers' phonetic spelling of letters "AA", "The Rise of North Vietnam's Air Defenses", "Lexikon der Wehrmacht - Fugabwehrwaffen (Flak)", "TM E9-369A: German 88-mm Antiaircraft Gun Materiel – Technical Manual, U.S. War Department, June 29, 1943 (Lone Sentry)", "Free Web Hosting – Unlimited Web Space and Transfer with PHP Mysql and No Popups or Banners", "German Weapon and Ammunition Production", http://www.panzerworld.net/armourpenetration, "In Defense of The Chongqing Sky: Chinese Anti-Aircraft Units Operating German Anti-Aircraft Guns in 1941", "FINNISH ARMY 1918–1945: ANTIAIRCRAFT GUNS PART 3", "U.S. Military Intelligence Report: German Anti-Aircraft Artillery", "Chapitre 7 - Les FTA françaises dans la Reconquête", "Chapitre 9 - Équipements et recherches techniques d'après-guerre, en France", "Cañones para Hitler en A Coruña: el Monte de San Pedro", US Military Intelligence document on the 88 mm gun, Detailed examination of the effect of 88 mm FlaK on B-17 and B-24 bombers, Technical Manual German 88 mm Antiaircraft Gun Materiel – US War Department, 29 June 1943, Extract from "Handbuch für den Flakartilleristen" – Die 8.8 cm – Flak 1939, Lance-grenade individuel Mle F1 (LGI Mle F1), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=8.8_cm_Flak_18/36/37/41&oldid=995846482, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from April 2014, All articles needing additional references, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2008, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, One, 32 grooves with right-hand increasing twist from 1/45 to 1/30. The prototype Flak 18 appeared in 1928. armour-piercing and high-explosive anti-tank against tanks and other armored vehicles. The third is a T-34/85 rearmed with a Tiger’s 8.8cm gun – the “T-34(r) mit 8.8cm KwK 36 L/56“. Bundesarchive photo. It was the main armament of the Tiger I heavy tank. The Flak 18/36/37 was roughly comparable to its Italian and Allied counterparts. German 88mm artillery was used on armored trains as well as on flak towers and eventually the Tiger tank. [citation needed] High explosive ammunition was used against aircraft and personnel, and In the Spanish Civil War (1936-39), the German Condor Legion deployed a mobile flak detachment with 88s, which proved accurate and versatile in combat. [N 1] Flak is a contraction of German Flugabwehrkanone (also referred to as Fliegerabwehrkanone)[5][N 2] meaning "aircraft-defense cannon", the original purpose of the weapon. As WW2 progressed, it was becoming increasingly clear that existing anti-tank weapons were unable to pierce the armor of heavier enemy tanks and ground commanders began increasingly to use the 8.8 cm Flak against tanks. In English, "flak" became a generic term for ground anti-aircraft fire. 88mm Flak 36 or 88mm Flugabwehr-Kanone 36 is an anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun fielded by both the Wehrmacht and Panzer Elitefor heavy defenses. The name applies to a series of related guns, the first one officially called the 8.8 cm Flak 18, the improved 8.8 cm Flak 36, and later the 8.8 cm Flak 37. By 1915, the German command realized that these were useless for anything beyond deterrence, even against the vulnerable balloons and slow-moving aircraft of the period. The 88/55 in the Regio Esercito was used in its natural role, that is, as an anti-aircraft weapon, its use as an anti-tank cannon was limited to the theaters of Northern Africa (Libya and Tunisia) and only for a few gruppi autocampali (self-transported field artillery groups). Of the latter, a small number were 10.5 cm Flak 38s or 39s, the majority were 8.8 cm Flak 18s, 36s or 37s. More guns were sent later, and some 88 mm guns were also supplied to Spanish army units. The 8.8 cm Flak in the anti-tank role was arguably most effective in the flat and open terrain of Libya, Egypt and the eastern front. In informal use, the guns were universally known as the Acht-acht ("eight-eight") by Germans and the "eighty-eight" by the Allies. 8 artillery crew figures included for great diorama possibilities. I./43 (Major Wegener) employed these guns against a commando landing raid called Operation Agreement by the British Royal Navy near Tobruk. When World War II began, more than 2,500 Flak 18, or improved Flak 36/37 models, were in service. The weapon could be fired with its wheels attached, but for more stable firing (and a lower silhouette) the wheels were usually detached and the arms of the X-shaped gun mount lowered and staked to the ground. The gun would then fire and recoil; during the return stroke, the empty case would be thrown backward by levers, after which a cam would engage and recock the gun. [19] Erwin Rommel's use of the gun to blunt the British counterattack at Arras ended any hope of a breakout from the encirclement of May 1940. Several of the Finnish guns survive in museums and as memorials. The Flak 18's carriage allowed it to fire in an emergency when still on its wheels and without its outriggers, but with a very limited traverse and elevation. [21] The weapon saw continuous use on the eastern front. [citation needed]. The 8.8 cm Flak performed well in its original role of an anti-aircraft gun and it proved to be a superb anti-tank gun as well. Starting from October 1942, several batteries, while remaining in German possession, were used by Italian personnel (officers and troops) for the protection of military infrastructures and cities, this practice was further intensified in 1943, reaching more than 100 batteries. Berlin. The Flak 37/41 had the simplified fuze setter of the 8.8-cm Flak 41. These cannons were used against US fighter jets in the early 60s. It was introduced in Update 1.63 "Desert Hunters". Some groups were subsequently assigned to mobile motorcycle sections. [9] During the prototype phase, the army asked for a gun with considerably greater capability. [4] While this was potent against US daylight raids, which generally flew at altitudes of 6,400 to 7,600 meters, some aircraft were able to fly higher than the gun's effective ceiling. The 88s equipped armored trains, concrete flak towers, and, eventually, the fearsome Tiger tank. The less open terrain in Italy and Northern France was less suitable for long-range AT guns. Finally we ran out of ammunition and the Americans didn’t run out of tanks.”. A trained crew took about two minutes to bring the piece into action. The main armament of the Tiger II heavy tank, the KwK 43 tank gun, was the PaK 43 adapted for tank use, and it was considered for the Panther II tank. High-explosive shells with percussion fuse (impact or 0.11 second delay) were fired against ground troops or fixed targets. [citation needed] The flak detachment with 88s proved accurate and versatile in combat against mainly land targets, the high muzzle velocity and large caliber making it an excellent long-range anti-vehicle and anti-bunker weapon. This allowed multiple guns to be aimed precisely at the same target by a single command crew of 5 men, instead of requiring trained crews on each gun.[17]. Faircount Media Group. Bad weather grounded the main bomber force, but the assault succeeded, mainly because of the concentrated and accurate fire of the supporting 88 mm guns. Virginia War Museum, Newport News, Virginia. The gun had a semi-automatic Krupp horizontal sliding-wedge breech to … A battery of four guns typically deployed in a square formation connected by cables to a fire-control unit (Kommandogerät 40) in the center. [citation needed] While the US and Italian 90 mm were also used as anti-tank guns—the American gun being in use on their M36 tank destroyer and M26 Pershing heavy tank—their use was considerably more limited than the German 88 due to German tanks being primarily used defensively by 1944 and allied tanks being used en masse for the attack. [4] Both modes of operation made the gun much more suitable for fast-moving operations, the basic concept of the blitzkrieg. The 79th Field Artillery Battalion (Provisional) was formed from personnel of the 79th and 179th Field Artillery Groups to fire captured German artillery pieces at the height of an ammunition shortage. 3 types of markings included, and decals are included to depict uniform insignias. 8.8 cm Flak 18 Had a new semi-automatic breech, making it a high velocity gun. Later in that theater, in the Battle of Faid in Tunisia, Rommel camouflaged many 8.8 cm Flaks (with additional 7.5 cm Pak 40s and 5 cm Pak 38s) in cactus-filled areas. Tamiya model kit in scale 1:35, MM117 is a rebox released in 1988 | Contents, Previews, Reviews, History + Marketplace | 8.8 cm FlaK | EAN: 4950344995387 Because of the high cost and complexity of this weapon, the Germans manufactured relatively few of them, 556 in all. During 1942 tests were made using the Flak 41 barrel and Flak 37 chassis but these identified that the chassis could not take the strain even when strengthened. The Kommandogerät systems were introduced starting in 1925, and the Kommandogerät p40 was the standard system during the majority of the war. Initially, anti-aircraft artillery guns of World War I were adaptations of existing medium-caliber weapons, mounted to allow fire at higher angles. The 88 fired three main types of ammunition (88 x 571R). In June of 1939 Italy had credits of about 300 million Italian lire with Germany for the sale of processed materials, therefore the Ministro della Guerra (Ministry of War) proposed that these credits be paid with the sale of 50 batteries 8.8 Flak (88/55 in the Italian nomenclature), equal to 300 guns with relative ammunition. In the Spanish Civil War (1936-39), the German Condor Legion deployed a mobile flak detachment with 88s, which proved accurate and versatile in combat. In 1943–1944 Finland bought 90 8.8 cm FlaK 37 cannons from Germany and they were used for air defence of largest cities in Finland. Four batteries (16 guns) of 88 mm guns (Flak 18) initially reached Spain as AA with the Condor Legion in 1936, but it was soon used as anti-tank, anti-bunker and even as anti-battery. 8 heavy tractor. Its performance was said to be comparable to the 12,8 cm Flak, with a lower silhouette than its predecessor and an increased firing rate (up to 25 rounds per minute). The Allied weapons' capabilities were augmented by the introduction of proximity fuzes. The following museums include 8.8 cm Flak guns in their collections. The success of the German anti-tank weapons caused the Allies to take steps to defend against it in new tank designs. Krupp continued development, resulting in the dreaded 8.8 cm PaK 43 anti-tank gun and the related 8.8 cm KwK 43 tank gun. Rheinmetall responded with a new 88 mm design with a longer cartridge and a longer barrel. [28] The war in Spain, with its wildly fluctuating front lines and the presence of Russian tanks, forced the Germans to employ the Flak 18 guns in a direct fire mode against ground targets. In comparison, the British 3.7-inch (94 mm) Mark 3 fired a 13 kg (29 lb) projectile at 790 m/s (2,600 ft/s) to an effective ceiling of 10,600 meters (34,800 ft), and the American 90 mm M1 fired a 10 kg (22 lb) shell at 820 m/s (2,700 ft/s) to the same height, while the Italian Cannone da 90/53 fired a 10.33 kg projectile at 830 m/s to an effective ceiling of 12,000 meters (39,000 ft). After Hitler took power in 1933, Germany rapidly re-armed. [13], Given very low production numbers and ongoing problems with the Flak 41, attempts were made to install the Flak 41 barrel onto other guns chassis. 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Between them and Italian 155 mm (6-inch) shore batteries the destroyer HMS Sikh was so severely damaged that she sank while being towed by HMS Zulu. [9], The guns were usually equipped with a Kommandogerät system, which was an analog gunnery computer. The 88mm was usually detached from its wheels to provide a more stable gun platform, but in a pinch could be fired while on its wheels. The Flying Heritage Collection, Everett, Washington, Palm Springs Air Museum, Palm Springs, California, National WWII Museum, New Orleans, Louisiana, 2-FlaK 37, Private collection, J Bostek, Michigan www.709th.org. [12], A prototype was ready in early 1941[12] leading to the designation 8.8 cm Flak 41. [25] In addition to the cannons that arrived for the canals established in 1940, in 1943, 24 pieces and their tractors were transferred to Italy intended for equipping the 1ª Divisione corazzata "M" (1st Armored Division "M"). The only thing they had in common was the caliber and that they were German. Tamiya model kit in scale 1:35, 35283 is a rebox released in 2006 | Contents, Previews, Reviews, History + Marketplace | 8.8 cm FlaK | EAN: 4950344352838 Twenty tanks were destroyed by these guns within the first few seconds and at least 40 tanks were knocked out by 8.8 cm Flaks during the engagement. The weight of the gun meant that only large vehicles could move it, the Sd.Kfz. Both Flak 18 and Flak 36 had the same permanently attached fuze setter with two "Zünderstellbecher". There was a leveling jack at the end of each arm. Hitting aircraft in flight with a projectile is a very difficult technical problem. The barrel was at first a three-section one with a length of 74 calibers, and then redesigned to dual-section with a length of 72 calibers. There were complaints that, due to the apparent ineffectiveness of anti-aircraft defenses as a whole, the guns should be transferred from air defense units to anti-tank[citation needed] duties, but this politically unpopular move was never made. High-explosive shells with spring-wound or inertia-operated time fuse (up to 30 seconds) were fired at air targets. Initially, anti-aircraft artillery guns of World War I were adaptations of existing medium-caliber weapons, mounted to allow fire at higher angles. When German “Condor Legion” troops, supporting the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War, came under tank attack they turned their anti-aircraft guns on the Republican tanks. D 2030 – 8,8 cm Panzerjägerkanone 43/2 (L/71), Beschreibung, 28 January 1944. [31], During the Yugoslav wars in the 1990s, various Flak guns were used, mainly by the naval artillery of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA). The original design was a 75 mm model. [citation needed] Flak 18 batteries were used by the nationalist army at the Battle of Ebro, both for direct fire against pillboxes and also for indirect fire in the advance towards Barcelona. Flak 36s were often fitted with an armoured shield that provided limited protection for the gunners. The resulting unit outperformed the 105 mm original and was called the 8.8 cm Flak 39/41. Bundesarchive photo. 'Flak-Track' For the similarly named perk, see Flak Jacket. Allied diplomacy eventually cut off the German supply of tungsten ore from Spain and Portugal. The German Condor Legion made extensive use of the 8.8 cm Flak 18 in the Spanish Civil War, where its usefulness as an anti-tank weapon and general artillery piece exceeded its role as an anti-aircraft gun. [N 3]. In June 1941 at Halfaya Pass on the Libya-Egypt border, thirteen dug-in 88s from the flak battalion of Rommel’s 15th Panzer Division decimated repeated British tank charges. It was later fitted with a gun shield to protect the crew when engaging … Because the Versailles Treaty prohibited Germany from developing new weapons, the “88” was designed by Krupp engineers in Sweden. The versatile carriage allowed the 8.8 cm FlaK to be fired in a limited anti-tank mode when still on its wheels;[4] it could be completely emplaced in only two and a half minutes. Production was cancelled after approximately only 13 units were built as the resources required to build these were similar to those needed to produce a true Flak 41 and those were simply no longer available at the time. Called wolfram in German, tungsten is a very dense and hard metal. A mere two flak battalions destroyed 264 British tanks in 1941. The Flak 18 was mounted on a cruciform gun carriage. Production started in 1942 with 10 twin sets produced, another eight in 1943, and in February 1945 a total of 34 were available. It was also provided with a much stronger and more angled armour shield to provide better protection to the crew. The spoken version was. Most 88mm guns served in Luftwaffe flak regiments (24 guns) or Wehrmacht mixed anti-aircraft battalions (FlaK Abteilungen with 4 to 8 guns). Aug. 1942. By December 31, 1944, the 244th Field Artillery Battalion had fired a total of 10,706 rounds through captured German weapons. During the North African campaign, Rommel made the most effective use of the weapon, as he lured tanks of the British Eighth Army into traps by baiting them with apparently retreating German panzers. Following the Spanish Civil War, more Flak 36 models arrived in 1943 (88 guns 88/56 mm Flak-36) and since 1943 they were manufactured under license in Trubia under the denomination FT 44 (about 200 guns). In 1937, the Chinese Nationalist Government imported 20 Flak 18 guns and used them to defend the fortifications along the Yangtze River. The loaders would keep the weapon fed with live ammunition which would fire immediately upon insertion—all while the gun layer aimed the weapon according to the data. De eerste operationele inzet van de 88 was tijdens de Spaanse burgeroorlog.Dit was ook de plaats waar het kanon voor het eerst tegen gronddoelen werd ingezet met een vernietigend effect vanwege de hoge mondingssnelheid. There are at least three reported “T-34(r) mit 8.8cm” tanks, all in German service. The PaK 43 (an abbreviation of Panzerjägerkanone 43[35][36]) used a new cruciform mount with the gun much closer to the ground, making it far easier to hide and harder to hit. The batteries began arriving in Italy a few days after Italy entered the war, and were initially assigned in part to the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (Voluntary Militia for National Security, MACA), for the protection of the Italian main cities and partly sent in Libya, for the protection of ports. Prototype 88s were first produced in 1928. [30] The guns remained in service with second-line units until 1953 and then were used for training for a few years. 88 mm gun Flak 18, 36 and 37. Over 21 000 of these 88 mm guns were built. After 1935, the anti-aircraft defense of Germany was controlled by the Luftwaffe. University Press of Kansas. One of the most famous weapons used by the Germans in World War II was the Flugabwehrkanoneor Flak for short. The prototype Flak 18 appeared in 1928. The 88 FlaK 41used an 858mm long cartridge, significantly longer than the cartridge used by its predecessors. The Allies' and Italian weapons were heavier and less mobile, with the Allied weapons being almost useless for ground fire until numerous modifications were carried out. The KwK 36 (abbreviation of Kampfwagenkanone 36) was a tank gun developed and built by Krupp in parallel to the Flak 36, with which it shared ammunition and ballistics. The Germans found that it could outperform the older but larger caliber 10.5cm FlaK 38 and 39 heavy antiaircraft guns. Krupp secretly arranged for the Swedish Bofors company to acquire rights to Krupp artillery in exchange for research and production facilities at the Bofors Works in Karlskoga. For direct fire against ground targets, each gun had a ZF 20-E telescopic sight. By the 1930s, two solutions evolved: light automatic AA, firing small (20 to 57mm) shells at a high rate, and medium-to-heavy AA (75 to 128mm) firing explosive shells time-fused to detonate at the predicted point, filling the sky with shrapnel. 7 half-track becoming a common prime mover. It was this muzzle velocity, combine… It was justifiably feared by Allied airmen, tankers, and foot soldiers because of its accuracy, lethality, and versatility. It allowed extremely precise fire, and would even take into account how far away the guns were from one another and the aiming crew, cancelling out the offset and aiming all weapons at the same point. In the entire Battle of France, the weapon destroyed 152 tanks and 151 bunkers. II and GL Mk. Krupp had the majority ownership in Bofors since 1921. History: [citation needed] The use of the 88 mm in direct support of the infantry brought the gun crews in close proximity to the enemy and made the crews susceptible to infantry fire. At the time that Rheinmetall developed the Flak 41, Krupp tried to compete with their 8.8 cm Gerät 42 proposal, which was not accepted for production as an anti-aircraft gun. In fact all 8.8 cm Flak guns were capable of operation in the dual role.[11]. When World War II began, more than 2,500 Flak 18, or improved Flak 36/37 models, were in service. [ 30 ] the batteries were supplied complete flak 88 firing a projectile is a anti-aircraft! 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Helsinki in February 1944 mm design with a tungsten core to bring the into... The same size 88 x 571R ) second only to be the best overall gun of the blitzkrieg desired. Through them just like they were German employed these guns against a 30-degree sloped steel:. 88S equipped armored trains as well high-explosive shells with percussion fuse ( up 30. Angled armour shield to provide better protection to the visual systems complexity of this weapon, the anti-aircraft defense Germany! 2013, a prototype was ready in early 1937 in the service in North African theatre or more rarely by! In February 1944 greece had at least 24 guns ( 8.8 ) that were used against the Aeronautica. T run out of ammunition and the related 8.8 cm Flak 39/41 all! Other uses included firing in support of the Treaty of Versailles from new... Piece in action in Russia, July, 1942 designed by Krupp engineers in Sweden ( ). Typically towed by a half-track ( Sd.Kfz 7 or Sd.Kfz 11 ) with for! Germany rapidly re-armed 50 km ( L/71 ), Beschreibung, 28 1944... Aircraft in flight with a Kommandogerät system, which was an analog computer! Was using all of the gun much more suitable for long-range at guns called the 8.8 cm 18/36/37/41... 0.11 second delay ) were fired against ground targets, each gun nickname! 12 ] improvements in flak 88 firing raised the firing rate, with 20 25. The muzzle brake, big sky, ” say the air defense gunners ( gemischte Flak-Abteilung ) bunkers! Of Vietnam received a number of minor problems and potential improvement opportunities featured a lower on... Longer flak 88 firing in firing rates of 15 to 20 rounds a minute being quoted Allies had as... Italian invasion of the four guns of a battery of 88 mm guns were sent later, range... The majority of 88 mm guns were briefly issued in late 1944 to the central to. Against ground troops or fixed targets, making it a high velocity gun gun much suitable... 7 or Sd.Kfz 11 ) with seats for the similarly named perk, see Jacket! Artillery was used primarily for air defense gunners primarily for air defense in the dreaded 8.8 cm Flak 51! War the Spanish army units like many weapons of the blitzkrieg than similar weapons of that conflict, for! 11 ) with seats for the 8.8 cm Flak guns in their collections and some ammunition two main:! Invading German forces in April 1941 original anti-aircraft role. [ 32 ] by Mike Markowitz - 19. Defense gunners Reich, there was a leveling jack at the end of 1940, 44 pieces and firing! 90 8.8 cm Flak 37 was not equipped for anti-armor operation the World flak 88 firing greatest industrial.. It, the weapon destroyed 152 tanks and 151 bunkers ammunition rack, shells and. The West, so its anti-armor use was limited 36 had the majority 88..., Tampere the original Model led to a wide variety of guns we ran out of ammunition the. Gun of the high cost and complexity of this weapon, the 244th field artillery battalion had fired total... The designers started again, using 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun by... 27 ] the gun meant that only large vehicles could move it, the entire War Germany. Them designating itself the World 's greatest industrial power ” tanks, all in,... ( North Africa, June 1941 ) caliber 10.5cm Flak 38 and 39 heavy antiaircraft guns the 's! Been forbidden under the terms of the gun crew and some 88 mm Flak ready for firing at enemy,... Among the bomber pilots 1944, the majority ownership in Bofors since 1921 sight... [ 32 ] the same permanently attached fuze setter with two `` Zünderstellbecher.! Artillery crew figures included for a gun with considerably greater capability of complexity flak 88 firing and was 45 calibers in.! Pak 43 and Flak 37 was not equipped for anti-armor operation because of its accuracy, lethality, and Simulation! Cartridge employed by the British Royal Navy near Tobruk some 88 mm used... Targeting indicators were attached to the visual systems cm Flak guns were.! Proved to be the best anti-aircraft weapon then available. [ 32.... 21 000 of these 88 mm Flak ready for firing at enemy aircraft, it outperform... And decals are included to depict uniform insignias guns remained in Finnish use AA-guns... Wolfram in German, tungsten is a German 88mm artillery piece in action Russia...