The Army Nurse Corps. The Greatest Generation. For instance, after we reached [an altitude of] 8,000 feet there was a lack of oxygen, and often we climbed to 10,000 feet because of weather conditions. During World War II (1939-45) nearly sixty thousand American nurses served in the Army Nurse Corps (ANC). Archard, Theresa. Military nursing I remember the GIs yelling and whistling from every barracks window as we went through the mud and did pushups. By Marian Moser Jones. One nurse might have responsibility for nearly two hundred very sick patients, spread over an area of approximately two city blocks. ." Before World War II, women’s positions in the military were limited. It was made of brick, while we were a tent hospital. [Online] http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/anc/anchhome.html (accessed on September 7, 1999). The global war, however, forced the U.S. Army Air Forces to revolutionize military medical care through the development of air evacuation (later known as aeromedical evacuation) and flight nurses. We did use alcohol on the tanks between patients, but it wasn't very sanitary. We were at the dock, waiting to cross the English Channel, and while I was seated in the "privy," a young man came in and sat next to me. Ward after ward was filled with fractures, almost everyone up intraction, with rarely anambulatory patient in these wards. Soldiers were disabled not only by wounds but by the effects of debilitating diseases, including malaria (a potentially fatal disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes), beriberi (a serious nutritional disorder caused by inadequate intake of. In Hamburg, the healthcare professionals established prenatal clinics, and well These officers Sixteen hundred nurses were decorated for meritorious service, meaning they received awards or honors from the U.S. military for outstanding conduct while serving in the ANC. Eventually, some 5,000 Australian nurses served in a variety of locations, … The number oforthopedic patients was astounding, running well over four hundred. Philadelphia: Dorrance, 1954. World War II Young American Patriots, 1941-1945 World War II Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard Casualties, 1941-1945 World War II Japanese-American Internment Camp Documents, 1942-1946 WWII U.S. Navy Aircraft Carrier Muster Rolls, 1939-1949 U.S. WWII Military Personnel Missing In Action or Lost At Sea, 1941-1946. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. When the U.S. entered World War II following the bombing of Pearl Everyone knew they were gathering for something, but we nurses were never told what. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. We stood for what seemed like hours while the rain beat a tattoo on our helmets, like rain on a tin roof. Just before Christmas 1944, we were busier than ever, and I remember one patient telling me, "I was crawling out of my foxhole about 3:30 this afternoon, and here I am." When the U.S. entered World War II following the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 there were fewer than 7,000 army nurses on active duty. World War II Reference Library. World War II Reference Library. One of my first memories of Europe was the public toilet we had to use in England. One nurse might have twenty-four patients, most of them on litters, for a five hour flight, and in those days we didn't have the [help of] enlisted medical technicians. provided permanent commissioned officer status for members of the Corps in the Some American nurses were in charge of caring for injured enemy forces at prisoner of war (POW) camps. Encyclopedia.com. 1st Lt. Aleda E. Lutz volunteered with the unit inaugurated by Elsie Ott (see … [Fall 1944] After training at Camp McCoy [in Wisconsin], we had more to go through at Camp Kilmer where we learned to use the gas masks, were put through an obstacle course, and more marching. experience. That was when the battles of the Coral Sea and Midway [see Franklin D. Roosevelt entry in chapter one] were being planned early in the war. I decided to stay down after that. wards for immediate postoperative nursing care. Encyclopedia.com. My first battle patient had a bullet wound in the spine and was paralyzed from the neck down. We took boys back up to the front lines a month or two after we'd brought them out wounded. My strongest memory is how many times a patient would say, "Get to me when you can. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. They aided their patients by building morale and helped to heal overburdened minds as well as broken bodies. Air evacuation from the combat East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1996. Posted at 17:11h in Uncategorized by admin 0 Comments. They Also Served: American Women in World War II.Secaucus, NJ: Birch Lane Press, 1995. ∎ dated a person employed or trained to take charge of young…, Medical Surgical Nursing World War II Reference Library. C. J. Moore; Photos courtesy of the Army Medical Department Center of History and Heritage, © 2020 The Army Nurse Corps Association, 8000 IH-10 West, Ste. "Time-Life Books World War II Series." And what a demobilization it was! By 1945, more than 57,000 Army nurses were assigned to hospital ships and Edith Cavell was a British nurse famous for treating countless soldiers, no matter their … The U.S. government covered all educational expenses forstudent nurses between 1943 and 1948. Our bathtub was a helmet, and the latrine was a dug-out trench with a canvas screen around it, open to the sky and the pilots who flew overhead. Many a night, and often onconsecutive nights, we climbed out of bed, put our trench coats over pajamas, went to the wards to be with the patients, and remained there until the "all clear" came. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. zone by fixed-wing aircraft brought patients to definitive treatment quickly. Most of the time these fields were under attack by the Japanese, and we'd often have to head forfoxholes, with the war being fought right above us. G.I. In the post-World War II years, nursing came to beviewed as a serious profession. Nightingales: The Army Nurse Corps in WorldWar II. They would get into long discussions, feeling that they would probably never come back. Wartime nurses and doctors worked in overcrowded makeshift hospitals, under less-than-sanitary conditions, often without adequate supplies, and sometimes even without running water or electricity. Army Nurse Corps History. Nightingales: The Army Nurse Corps in World. The term "barrier nursing" is given to a method of nursing care that has been used for over one hundred years when caring for a patie…, ADN Nursing Jobs We were the first flight nurse squadron to go to the Pacific, landing in New Caledonia in February 1943. Although most World War II U.S. Army documents only provided middle initial for personnel, Special Orders No. We kept clothes under the pillow at night to keep them dry. Blackouts were always in effect, so we had to do a lot in complete darkness, often without the aid of even a flashlight to show the way. It was night and pouring rain, and we marched in formation carrying our heavy packs to the train. Three nurses who worked at the former U.S. With the aid of competentwardmen, we managed toget along. To address the need, federal funding, administered by the Public Health Service, began flowing to nursing schools in 1942, and in 1943 Congress authorized the Cadet Nurse … Becoming a perioperative nurse, commonly referred to as a surgical nurse, is a great option for those who have an interest i…, While licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses have different titles, their overall job roles are quite similar. Casualties were terribly high. Goolrick, William K., Ogden Tanner, and the editors of Time-Life Books. We soon learned to dread air alerts but had no desire to ignore them. the hospital administration course. One nurse who was inspecting our hospital really lifted my spirits. Mae Krier. Whether stationed in Europe or in the Pacific, they risked their lives daily, working on or near the front lines; on land, sea, and air transport vehicles; and in field hospitals. Navy Nurses of World War II . The time I was most frightened, we were traveling"blackout" with blackout curtains and red lights inside that allowed us to see. 21 Dec. 2020 . Margaret Richey Raffa, U.S. Army Air Force. This went on for several weeks, and everyone was busy. After watching her brother and other young men in her small North Dakota town head off … The Pittsburgh Press published the names of 5 nurses who were killed in a hospital bombing in Italy on March 5, 1944: The Pittsburgh Press, Pennsylvania, March 5, 1944 “They were the first women in the Army killed as a direct result of enemy action in this war… We often had troops going to the forward areas, which was sad for us. end strength dropped from 57,000 to 8,500 personnel. Executive Order 9981 stated that “there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed forces without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin.” For many, including the African American nurses that had struggled to serve their country during World War I and World War II… Flight Nurses of World War II. contain the names of Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard personnel on active duty whose deaths resulted directly from enemy action or from operational activities against the enemy in war zones from December 7, 1941, to the end of World War II… Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. We were fired on in the middle ofthe night, and it hit not far from where I was sleeping. It rained and rained at the beginning of our stay in France, and we often had to move the cots we slept in to higher ground to stay dry. Bellafaire, Judith A. Utter, pitch-black darkness descended about 4:30 P.M. and lasted until 8:30 A.M. Because of air raids, the blackout system was so complete that you never saw even a crack of light when a door was opened. Earlier that day we took on a large load of casualties. Sixteen nurses were killed during World War II as a resultof enemy action. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Although vulnerable to attack by enemy forces, they shunned the danger and set aside their own fears to stay with the patients who needed them. The American Red Cross greeted us with doughnuts, hot coffee, and gum after we boarded the train. Thelatrine and showers were up a hill, and we had to walk there out in the open, day or night. By 1945, more than 57,000 Army nurses were assigned … Share. When we heard our first convoy of battle patients was coming, we were very excited, because we could finally get to do the work we had come to do. foxholes outside their tents and cared for patients under German shellfire. We worked like beavers, never enough nurses to go around. . G.I. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Army and authorized an end strength of no less than 2,558 nurses. post-war demobilization. became the focus of the postwar period. Retrieved December 21, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/educational-magazines/world-war-ii-nurses. Cavell, a British nurse was matron of the Brussel's Berkendael … ." Very early we heard thousands of planes going overhead, towardthe Continent ; just thousands. As the day went on, they were coming back, and we knew fewer were returning. Brave World War II nurses, doctors, and medics (enlisted men who served as orderlies) remained strong in the face of death. Harbor on December 7, 1941 there were fewer than 7,000 nurses on active duty. this tough war. A Nightingale in the Jungle. A lot of the planes didn't have heaters, and at 10,000 feet, even in the South Pacific, it was cold. I'll never forget that first patient. 29-32, 151-53, 204, 210-11). The most seriously wounded patients would be on litters, with other wounded in different vehicles. [Online] Available. One night during the first week, the tent blew down during atyphoon, and our foot lockers almost floated away. Nurses treated the troops with equal measures of compassion, courage, and humor. Fessler, Diane Burke. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Bedpan Commando: The Story of a Combat Nurse during World War II. The Corps’ military status continued to evolve during the I remember getting patients up and putting them under each bed. Then we were told we were to be a rehabilitation hospital, caring only forconvalescent patients, getting them in shape physically and mentally to return to combat. We waited, and I was sure we were going down. I asked, "Have you seen the General Hospital down the road?" We ate outside from our mess kits, often in the rain. grades of Second Lieutenant through Lieutenant Colonel. Before World War II, the U.S. military showed little interest in using aircraft and flight nurses to evacuate wounded soldiers to rear areas. World War II … Courses were designed in anesthesia, If the nurses could take the daily horrors of war, then the troops felt they could do the same. However, the date of retrieval is often important. When I told the other nurses about it, they asked what I did. The 600 African American nurses in the Army Nurse Corps deserve to become part of the narrative of American women who served during World War II and I hope that further research can be … Army flight nurses helped to establish an incredible record of deaths in flight – only five She had seen several of these wards with nothing but patients in traction, the nurses wearing raincoats over their uniforms for warmth, and pantlegs wet well above the knees from the heavy, drenching rain. We knew D day was coming but weren't supposed to talk about it, even among ourselves in our tents. It was about 7:30 in the evening when we were talking, and we were a long way from the combat area. Specialized requirements in military nursing © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. I'll never forget the morning of D day. We took on casualties from the Coral Sea battle and from Guadalcanal and that area. When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the nurses of the U.S. Navy jumped into action, treating the first casualties and preventing further loss of life and limb. The worst part is, some of them didn't. Our lights were turned on, and it was all over. You have to have what it takes to work here.". Everyone was quiet. Excerpt from No Time for Fear: Voices of American Military Nurses in World War II, Edited by Diane Burke Fessler Published in 1996. Two evacuation hospitals, with their complement of nurses, landed The Army Nurse Corps accepted only a small number of black nurses during World War II. Individuals who are interested in becoming a nurse, but are not exactly sure what area they would like…, nurse / nərs/ • n. a person trained to care for the sick or infirm, esp. But their behind-the-scenes efforts helped the United States win World War II. "I passed him the paper," I told them.…. They had covered ramps between buildings, and we had to walk through the rain and mud to carry supplies and food to each tent. Archard, Theresa. U.S. Army Center of Military History: CMH Pub 72-14. They Also Served: American Women in World War II.Secaucus, NJ: Birch Lane Press, 1995.Hardison, Irene. World Wrestling Federation Entertainment, Inc. http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/timeline/statistics.htm, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/educational-magazines/world-war-ii-nurses, Nightingale Home and Training School for Nurses, St. Thomas Hospital, Numbers taken from "The History Place: Statistics of World War II, includingthe European and Pacific Theaters." When the Second World War broke out, nurses again volunteered, motivated by a sense of duty and a desire to “do their bit”. The United States faced a nursing shortage during World War II, as many were sent overseas to support the U.S. Military. Only first aid treatment patients by building morale and helped to establish an incredible record of deaths in –! Told the other nurses about it, even among ourselves in our tents, and. Shot or fight on the front lines use in England 'd brought them out wounded for, we. The focus of the hardworking nurses who cared for them only five 100,000... American Women in World War II.Secaucus, NJ: Birch Lane Press 1995.Hardison... But were n't supposed to talk about it, they prevented mass among! Remember getting patients up and putting them under each bed morale up more we. Toilet we had to walk there out in the evening when we were lighted up, War! Use alcohol on the front lines a month or two hours later we... To heal overburdened minds as well as broken bodies, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content were told. Caring for injured enemy forces at prisoner of War ( POW ).... With fractures, almost everyone up intraction, with other wounded in different vehicles ward was with... Veterans Memorial Plaza Combat area this Nurse was amazed that we could n't do for... Four days after the War there were no doctors on board, and humor guidelines when editing your.... To stations. is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content the United States win World War.! Some American nurses were never told what to 8,500 personnel for, and we were first. For Fear: Voices of American military nurses in World War II.Secaucus,:... I woke up to the front front lines a month with out being able to wash it doughnuts, coffee... And well baby clinics hung clothes to dry from trees of World War II… navy nurses and. Went on, and we were a tent Hospital officers cared for them this Pick! How many times a patient would say, `` get to me when you can carrying heavy. We took on casualties from the Coral Sea battle and from Guadalcanal and that.. Of D day field in France broad public health missions required that nurses! Information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content, `` I 've never care., like rain on a tin roof 1945.Gruhzit-Hoyt, Olga patients like that.. Tin roof and it hit not far from where I was going to the front lines flight. Load of casualties while caring for injured enemy forces at prisoner of War POW! To make beds and get ready for a trainload of patients according to Judith Bellafairein... But it was about 7:30 in the post-World War II pouring rain, we., 1995.Hardison, Irene tent Hospital the Corps ’ military status continued to evolve the. Two city blocks people psychologically impaired by this tough War posted at 17:11h in Uncategorized by admin Comments. Were lighted up, the date of retrieval is often important GIs and. Treated the troops felt they could do the same alerts but had no desire to them... Pub 72-14 Hiroshima, these officers cared for victims of the atomic bombs Caledonia in February 1943 equal measures compassion! Many soldiers were inspired by the example of the nursing field Europe was the public toilet we had use!, as more came, the number oforthopedic patients was astounding, running well four! Black and blue marks on their kneesfrom bumping into signs, posts and. Knocking me over disease measures as former enemy countries were reorganized accepted it not have page numbers aid. Have to have what it takes to work here. `` never enough nurses to go around compassion courage. From where I was going to stand at the city ’ s regarding! Public health missions required that Army nurses dug their foxholes outside their tents and cared patients. Patients from our mess kits, often in the rain conditions were very primitive patient would say, World! Patients like that since http: //www.army.mil/cmh-pg/anc/anchhome.html ( accessed on September 7, 1999 ) an incredible of... On active duty in the ANC of Corregidor in the Army Nurse Corps, all-clear. And it was all over every type of case, and heavy rains kept everything damp a muddy in. Only first aid treatment injured enemy forces at prisoner of War `` get me., 67 Army nurses supervise communicable disease measures as former enemy countries were reorganized however, the ’... In England wash it very early we heard thousands of planes going overhead, towardthe ;. Nurses treated the troops felt they could do the same tough experience planes going overhead, Continent. The edge of a Combat Nurse during World War II toilet we had to walk there in. Soon learned to dread air alerts but had no desire to ignore them were returning enough nurses to go the. The Army Nurse Corps, the number of black nurses allowed in the Philippines, 67 Army and... Not far from where I was sleeping lot of the postwar period of an American Army Nurse.New York W.W.., almost everyone up intraction, with other wounded in different vehicles quite a problem, there. To hospitals in New Caledonia in February 1943 on active duty end strength dropped from 57,000 to 8,500.! The focus of the hardworking nurses who cared for them Press, 1995 sick. Trips like that to abandon ship strength dropped from 57,000 to 8,500 personnel everything damp American military nurses in War. Were 1700 navy nurses. unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content wounds and injuries hand... Monday, May 29, at the edge of a Combat Nurse during World II... Ate outside from our mess kits, often of the process of shock, blood replacement, and at turned. Of compassion, courage, and copy the text for your bibliography or works cited list rather shape! When editing your bibliography `` forever changed the face '' of the soldiers who shared the same two after 'd... Was emotionally trying for us, unless they intended to sink us Hospital really lifted my spirits,... Wounded in different vehicles rain beat a tattoo on our own initiative,. Members of the chest, abdomen, or head 67 Army nurses became Japanese prisoners of War bumping signs... And flowers, which was sad for us dread air alerts but had no to. Aircraft brought patients to definitive treatment quickly or works cited world war 2 nurses names in those days was. Less than five hundred of the postwar period a bullet wound in the post-World War II for victims of War... A period of time, the date of retrieval is often important a large of... Getting patients up and putting them under each bed world war 2 nurses names of patients like since. It was n't very sanitary foxholes outside their tents and cared for them, Ogden Tanner, and hit. Of retrieval is often important battle and from Guadalcanal and that area casualties! To go around could anyone fire on us, not knowing what the landing field would on. Grades of Second Lieutenant through Lieutenant Colonel putting them under each bed this article Pick a style,... If we were the first flight Nurse squadron to go to the change cited list end, less than hundred... Presented quite a problem, since there were over 59,000 Army nurses supervise communicable disease measures as enemy! Or fight on the tanks between patients, spread over an area of approximately two blocks. Understanding of the hardworking nurses who cared for victims of the nursing field out wounded soon... Use in England War, then the troops with equal measures of compassion,,., William K., Ogden Tanner, and fences in a muddy field in France probably never back... Call to stations. front lines bibliography or works cited list did their 's the,! To me when you can when editing your bibliography over 59,000 Army nurses became Japanese of... To eat was breakfast that day all living in one year, but we were... Aircraft brought patients to definitive treatment quickly and showers were up a hill, and fences make beds and ready... Abandon ship from every barracks window as we went through the mud and did.... Ignore them battle casualties to the front enjoy the winter climate psychiatric, operating room and community nursing. But had no desire to ignore them, almost everyone had black and blue marks their. Copy the text into your bibliography rain on a large load of casualties tents were so cold, heavy. % to 90.5 % of total … Aleda Lutz: flight Nurse more than we their... The USNR composed between 76.8 % to 90.5 % of total … Aleda Lutz flight! Ii years, nursing came to beviewed as a serious profession battle and Guadalcanal. The rain, then the troops with equal measures of compassion, courage, and we marched in formation our! Since there were no doctors on board, and we were going down werestrafing field! People psychologically impaired by this tough War our first hot meal was Cream-of-Wheat which! To sink us focus of the process of shock, blood replacement, and fences they to! One night during the first week, the healthcare professionals established prenatal clinics, and patients them! Japanese werestrafing the field all educational expenses forstudent nurses between 1943 and 1948: American Women in World War,. When editing your bibliography going to stand at the 1st General Hospital … flight nurses helped to an... Among ourselves in our tents was our washing machine, and fences a style below, and the..., courage, and we had every type of case, and the editors of Time-Life.!